To enable you to better understand the micro-trading advantages, here are some explanations.
MACD (Moving Average Convergence Divergence)
For each intra-day bar period I optimized for the moving average that produced the best gain and lowest drawdown. This post is a revision of one I published earlier today, and now includes this adjustment.
The best results were obtained with bar lengths that varied between 39 minutes and 5 minutes. Short bar lengths take longer to optimize and generate a huge number of trades, particularly if one is trading a number of stocks.
This generates a lot of accounting aggravation at tax time. Of course, this test was only on one stock and over a choppy market environment. Any system should be tested over different market time periods on a basket of stocks, and a simple system like this one is just a starting point for any serious system trader.
However, it does demonstrate a basic idea of system testing: Remember, controlling drawdown and losses is critical if you want to become a successful trader.
Mail will not be published required. Icons used here are from Web 2 Mini pack. The chart below shows a day moving average acting as support i. It is both a trend-following and momentum indicator. Above zero for a sustained period of time, and the trend is likely up; below zero for a sustained period of time, and the trend is likely down. Potential buy signals occur when the MACD moves above zero, and potential sell signals when it crosses below zero.
Signal line crossovers provide additional buy and sell signals. A buy signal occurs when the fast line crosses through and above the slow line. A sell signal occurs when the fast line crosses through and below the slow line.
The RSI is another oscillator , but because its movement is contained between zero and , it provides some different information than the MACD.
In a strong uptrend, the price will often reach 70 and beyond for sustained periods, and downtrends can stay at 30 or below for a long time. While general overbought and oversold levels can be accurate occasionally, they may not provide the most timely signals for trend traders. Say the long-term trend of a stock is up. A buy signal occurs when the RSI moves below 50 and then back above it.
Essentially, this means a pullback in price has occurred, and the trader is buying once the pullback appears to have ended according to the RSI and the trend is resuming.
A short-trade signal occurs when the trend is down and the RSI moves above 50 and then back below it. Momentum and the Relative Strength Index.
They looked at the amount of quote traffic compared to the value of trade transactions over 4 and half years and saw a fold decrease in efficiency. This makes it difficult for observers to pre-identify market scenarios where HFT will dampen or amplify price fluctuations. The growing quote traffic compared to trade value could indicate that more firms are trying to profit from cross-market arbitrage techniques that do not add significant value through increased liquidity when measured globally.
Economies of scale in electronic trading contributed to lowering commissions and trade processing fees, and contributed to international mergers and consolidation of financial exchanges.
The speeds of computer connections, measured in milliseconds or microseconds, have become important. For example, in the London Stock Exchange bought a technology firm called MillenniumIT and announced plans to implement its Millennium Exchange platform  which they claim has an average latency of microseconds. The brief but dramatic stock market crash of May 6, was initially thought to have been caused by high-frequency trading.
In the aftermath of the crash, several organizations argued that high-frequency trading was not to blame, and may even have been a major factor in minimizing and partially reversing the Flash Crash. However, after almost five months of investigations, the U.
Securities and Exchange Commission SEC and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission CFTC issued a joint report identifying the cause that set off the sequence of events leading to the Flash Crash  and concluding that the actions of high-frequency trading firms contributed to volatility during the crash. In the Paris-based regulator of the nation European Union, the European Securities and Markets Authority , proposed time standards to span the EU, that would more accurately synchronize trading clocks "to within a nanosecond, or one-billionth of a second" to refine regulation of gateway-to-gateway latency time— "the speed at which trading venues acknowledge an order after receiving a trade request.
The fastest technologies give traders an advantage over other "slower" investors as they can change prices of the securities they trade. High-frequency trading comprises many different types of algorithms. High-frequency trading has been the subject of intense public focus and debate since the May 6, Flash Crash. In their joint report on the Flash Crash, the SEC and the CFTC stated that "market makers and other liquidity providers widened their quote spreads, others reduced offered liquidity, and a significant number withdrew completely from the markets"  during the flash crash.
Politicians, regulators, scholars, journalists and market participants have all raised concerns on both sides of the Atlantic. She said, "high frequency trading firms have a tremendous capacity to affect the stability and integrity of the equity markets. Currently, however, high frequency trading firms are subject to very little in the way of obligations either to protect that stability by promoting reasonable price continuity in tough times, or to refrain from exacerbating price volatility.
In an April speech, Berman argued: I worry that it may be too narrowly focused and myopic. The Chicago Federal Reserve letter of October , titled "How to keep markets safe in an era of high-speed trading", reports on the results of a survey of several dozen financial industry professionals including traders, brokers, and exchanges.
The CFA Institute , a global association of investment professionals, advocated for reforms regarding high-frequency trading,  including:. Exchanges offered a type of order called a "Flash" order on NASDAQ, it was called "Bolt" on the Bats stock exchange that allowed an order to lock the market post at the same price as an order on the other side of the book [ clarification needed ] for a small amount of time 5 milliseconds. This order type was available to all participants but since HFT's adapted to the changes in market structure more quickly than others, they were able to use it to "jump the queue" and place their orders before other order types were allowed to trade at the given price.
Currently, the majority of exchanges do not offer flash trading, or have discontinued it. On September 24, , the Federal Reserve revealed that some traders are under investigation for possible news leak and insider trading. However, the news was released to the public in Washington D. Octeg violated Nasdaq rules and failed to maintain proper supervision over its stock trading activities. Nasdaq determined the Getco subsidiary lacked reasonable oversight of its algo-driven high-frequency trading.
Knight was found to have violated the SEC's market access rule, in effect since to prevent such mistakes. Regulators stated the HFT firm ignored dozens of error messages before its computers sent millions of unintended orders to the market.
According to the SEC's order, for at least two years Latour underestimated the amount of risk it was taking on with its trading activities. By using faulty calculations, Latour managed to buy and sell stocks without holding enough capital. The SEC noted the case is the largest penalty for a violation of the net capital rule.
In response to increased regulation, some   have argued that instead of promoting government intervention, it would be more efficient to focus on a solution that mitigates information asymmetries among traders and their backers. These exchanges offered three variations of controversial "Hide Not Slide"  orders and failed to accurately describe their priority to other orders.
The SEC found the exchanges disclosed complete and accurate information about the order types "only to some members, including certain high-frequency trading firms that provided input about how the orders would operate". The SEC stated that UBS failed to properly disclose to all subscribers of its dark pool "the existence of an order type that it pitched almost exclusively to market makers and high-frequency trading firms".
UBS broke the law by accepting and ranking hundreds of millions of orders  priced in increments of less than one cent, which is prohibited under Regulation NMS. The order type called PrimaryPegPlus enabled HFT firms "to place sub-penny-priced orders that jumped ahead of other orders submitted at legal, whole-penny prices".
Nasdaq's disciplinary action stated that Citadel "failed to prevent the strategy from sending millions of orders to the exchanges with few or no executions. This excessive messaging activity, which involved hundreds of thousands of orders for more than 19 million shares, occurred two to three times per day. Panther's computer algorithms placed and quickly canceled bids and offers in futures contracts including oil, metals, interest rates and foreign currencies, the U.
Commodity Futures Trading Commission said. The indictment stated that Coscia devised a high-frequency trading strategy to create a false impression of the available liquidity in the market, "and to fraudulently induce other market participants to react to the deceptive market information he created". The HFT firm Athena manipulated closing prices commonly used to track stock performance with "high-powered computers, complex algorithms and rapid-fire trades," the SEC said.
The regulatory action is one of the first market manipulation cases against a firm engaged in high-frequency trading. Reporting by Bloomberg noted the HFT industry is "besieged by accusations that it cheats slower investors. Advanced computerized trading platforms and market gateways are becoming standard tools of most types of traders, including high-frequency traders.
Broker-dealers now compete on routing order flow directly, in the fastest and most efficient manner, to the line handler where it undergoes a strict set of risk filters before hitting the execution venue s. Such performance is achieved with the use of hardware acceleration or even full-hardware processing of incoming market data , in association with high-speed communication protocols, such as 10 Gigabit Ethernet or PCI Express. More specifically, some companies provide full-hardware appliances based on FPGA technology to obtain sub-microsecond end-to-end market data processing.
Buy side traders made efforts to curb predatory HFT strategies. Brad Katsuyama , co-founder of the IEX , led a team that implemented THOR , a securities order-management system that splits large orders into smaller sub-orders that arrive at the same time to all the exchanges through the use of intentional delays. This largely prevents information leakage in the propagation of orders that high-speed traders can take advantage of. The IEX speed bump—or trading slowdown—is microseconds , which the SEC ruled was within the 'immediately visible' parameter.
The slowdown promises to impede HST ability "often [to] cancel dozens of orders for every trade they make". Unlike the IEX fixed length delay that retains the temporal ordering of messages as they are received by the platform, the spot FX platforms' 'speed bumps' reorder messages so the first message received is not necessarily that processed for matching first. In short, the spot FX platforms' speed bumps seek to reduce the benefit of a participant being faster than others, as has been described in various academic papers.