2018 FIFA World Cup

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In February , Ukrainian rightsholder UA: Vatutinki , Moscow [81] Iceland:

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Competing countries were divided into eight groups of four teams groups A to H. Teams in each group played one another in a round-robin basis, with the top two teams of each group advancing to the knockout stage. Ten European teams and four South American teams progressed to the knockout stage, together with Japan and Mexico.

For the first time since , Germany reigning champions did not advance past the first round. For the first time since , no African team progressed to the second round. For the first time, the fair play criteria came into use, when Japan qualified over Senegal due to having received fewer yellow cards. Only one match, France v Denmark, was goalless. Until then there were a record 36 straight games in which at least one goal was scored. All times listed below are local time.

The ranking of teams in the group stage was determined as follows: In the knockout stages, if a match is level at the end of normal playing time, extra time is played two periods of 15 minutes each and followed, if necessary, by a penalty shoot-out to determine the winners. If a match went into extra time, each team was allowed to make a fourth substitution, the first time this had been allowed in a FIFA World Cup tournament. Twelve own goals were scored during the tournament, doubling the record of six set in In total, only four players were sent off in the entire tournament, the fewest since A player is automatically suspended for the next match for the following offences: The following awards were given at the conclusion of the tournament.

The award was sponsored by Hyundai. FIFA also published an alternate team of the tournament based on player performances evaluated through statistical data. Prize money amounts were announced in October The tournament logo was unveiled on 28 October by cosmonauts at the International Space Station and then projected onto Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre during an evening television programme.

Russian Sports Minister Vitaly Mutko said that the logo was inspired by "Russia's rich artistic tradition and its history of bold achievement and innovation", and FIFA President Sepp Blatter stated that it reflected the "heart and soul" of the country. The official mascot for the tournament was unveiled 21 October , and selected through a design competition among university students. A public vote was used to select from three finalists—a cat, a tiger, and a wolf. The first phase of ticket sales started on 14 September , The general visa policy of Russia did not apply to participants and spectators, who were able to visit Russia without a visa right before and during the competition regardless of their citizenship.

A Fan-ID was required to enter the country visa-free, while a ticket, Fan-ID and a valid passport were required to enter stadiums for matches.

Fan-IDs also granted World Cup attendees free access to public transport services, including buses, and train service between host cities. Fan-ID was administered by the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media , who could revoke these accreditations at any time to "ensure the defence capability or security of the state or public order".

The official match ball of the World Cup group stage was " Telstar 18 ", based on the name and design of the first Adidas World Cup ball from It was introduced on 9 November After the group stage, "Telstar Mechta" was used for the knockout stage.

The word mechta Russian: The difference between Telstar 18 and Mechta is the red details on the design. Its music video was released on 8 June Thirty-three footballers who are alleged to be part of the steroid program are listed in the McLaren Report. The choice of Russia as host has been challenged. Controversial issues have included the level of racism in Russian football, [] [] [] and discrimination against LGBT people in wider Russian society.

Allegations of corruption in the bidding processes for the and World Cups caused threats from England's FA to boycott the tournament. Garcia , a US attorney, to investigate and produce a report on the corruption allegations. Eckert's summary cleared Russia and Qatar of any wrongdoing, but was denounced by critics as a whitewash.

On 3 June , the FBI confirmed that the federal authorities were investigating the bidding and awarding processes for the and World Cups. In response to the March poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal , British Prime Minister Theresa May announced that no British ministers or members of the royal family would attend the World Cup, and issued a warning to any travelling England fans. The British Foreign Office and MPs had repeatedly warned English football fans and "people of Asian or Afro-Caribbean descent" travelling to Russia of "racist or homophobic intimidation, hooligan violence and anti-British hostility".

At the close of the World Cup Russia was widely praised for its success in hosting the tournament, with Steve Rosenberg of the BBC deeming it "a resounding public relations success" for Putin, adding, "The stunning new stadiums, free train travel to venues and the absence of crowd violence has impressed visiting supporters.

Russia has come across as friendly and hospitable: All the foreign fans I have spoken to are pleasantly surprised. FIFA President Gianni Infantino stated, "Everyone discovered a beautiful country, a welcoming country, that is keen to show the world that everything that has been said before might not be true. A lot of preconceived ideas have been changed because people have seen the true nature of Russia. The elimination of the US national team in qualifying led to concerns that US interest and viewership of this World Cup would be reduced especially among "casual" viewers interested in the US team , especially noting how much Fox paid for the rights, and that US games at the World Cup peaked at During a launch event prior to the elimination, Fox stated that it had planned to place a secondary focus on the Mexican team in its coverage to take advantage of their popularity among US viewers factoring Hispanic and Latino Americans.

Fox stated that it was still committed to broadcasting a significant amount of coverage for the tournament. In February , Ukrainian rightsholder UA: PBC stated that it would not broadcast the World Cup. This came in the wake of growing boycotts of the tournament among the Football Federation of Ukraine and sports minister Ihor Zhdanov. Broadcast rights to the tournament in the Middle East were hampered by an ongoing diplomatic crisis in Qatar over alleged support of extremist groups.

Qatar is the home country of the region's rightsholder, beIN Sports. On 2 June , beIN pulled its channels from Du and Etisalat , but with service to the latter restored later that day. Etisalat subsequently announced that it would air the World Cup in the UAE, and continue to offer beIN normally and without interruptions. On 12 July , FIFA stated that it "has engaged counsel to take legal action in Saudi Arabia and is working alongside other sports rights owners that have also been affected to protect its interests.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other competitions of that name, see World Cup disambiguation. For the video game, see FIFA Not a FIFA member. Bronnitsy , Moscow Oblast Australia: Kazan , Republic of Tatarstan Belgium: Krasnogorsky , Moscow Oblast Brazil: Sochi , Krasnodar Krai Colombia: Verkhneuslonsky , Republic of Tatarstan Costa Rica: Roshchino , Leningrad Oblast [79] Denmark: Anapa , Krasnodar Krai Egypt: Grozny , Chechen Republic England: Repino , Saint Petersburg [80] France: Istra , Moscow Oblast Germany: Vatutinki , Moscow [81] Iceland: Gelendzhik , Krasnodar Krai Iran: Bakovka, Moscow Oblast Japan: Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan Mexico: Khimki , Moscow Oblast Morocco: Voronezh , Voronezh Oblast Nigeria: Yessentuki , Stavropol Krai Panama: Saransk , Republic of Mordovia Peru: Sochi, Krasnodar Krai Portugal: Ramenskoye , Moscow Oblast Russia: Khimki, Moscow Oblast Saudi Arabia: Kaluga , Kaluga Oblast Serbia: Svetlogorsk , Kaliningrad Oblast South Korea: Krasnodar , Krasnodar Krai Sweden: Gelendzhik, Krasnodar Krai Switzerland: Togliatti , Samara Oblast Tunisia: Pervomayskoye, Moscow Oblast Uruguay: Bor , Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

FIFA Rules for classification: Group stage tiebreakers H Host. Luzhniki Stadium , Moscow. Central Stadium , Yekaterinburg.

Krestovsky Stadium , Saint Petersburg. Rostov Arena , Rostov-on-Don. Cosmos Arena , Samara. Volgograd Arena , Volgograd. Fisht Olympic Stadium , Sochi. Pada perdagangan valuta asing secara langsung OTC , pialang dan pedagang melakukan negosiasi secara langsung tanpa melalui bursa atau kliring. Tidak ada suatu keseragaman dalam pasar valuta asing. Dengan adanya transaksi di luar bursa perdagangan over the counter [3] sebagai pasar tradisional dari perdagangan valuta asing, banyak sekali pasar valuta asing yang saling berhubungan satu sama lainnya di mana mata uang yang berbeda diperdagangkan, sehingga secara tidak langsung artinya bahwa "tidak ada kurs tunggal mata uang dollar melainkan kurs yang berbeda-beda tergantung pada bank mana atau pelaku pasar mana yang bertransaksi".

Namun dalam praktiknya perbedaan tersebut seringkali sangat tipis. Pusat perdagangan utama adalah di London , New York , Tokyo dan Singapura namun bank-bank diseluruh dunia menjadi pesertanya. Perdagangan valuta asing terjadi sepanjang hari. Apabila pasar Asia berakhir maka pasar Eropa mulai dibuka dan pada saat pasar Eropa berakhir maka pasar Amerika dimulai dan kembali lagi ke pasar Asia, terkecuali di akhir pekan. Sangat sedikit atau bahkan tidak ada "perdagangan orang dalam" atau informasi "orang dalam" Insider trading [4] yang terjadi dalam pasar valuta asing.

Berita utama selalu dipublikasikan untuk umum, sehingga banyak orang dapat mengakses berita tersebut pada saat yang bersamaan. Namun bank yang besar memiliki nilai lebih yang penting yaitu mereka dapat melihat arus pergerakan "pesanan" mata uang dari nasabahnya. Pada pasar spot , menurut penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Bank for Internasional Settlement BIS [5] , produk yang paling sering diperdagangkan adalah. Walaupun perdagangan dalam mata uang Euro meningkat secara cepat sejak mata uang tersebut diterbitkan pada January , US dollar masih mendominasi pasar valuta asing.

Di bursa valas valuta asing ini orang dapat membeli ataupun menjual mata uang yang diperdagangkan. Secara obyektif adalah untuk mendapatkan profit atau keuntungan dari posisi transaksi yang anda lakukan. Di Bursa valas dikenal istilah Lot dan Pip. Sedangkan nilai dolar di bursa valas berbeda dengan nilai dolar yang kita kenal di bank-bank. Transaksi di valuta asing dapat dilakukan dengan cara dua arah dalam mengambil keuntungannya. Seseorang dapat membeli dahulu open buy , lalu ditutup dengan menjual sell ataupun sebaliknya, melakukan penjualan dahulu, lalu ditutup dengan membeli.

Tidak seperti halnya pada bursa saham tempat para anggota bursa memiliki akses yang sama terhadap harga saham, pasar valuta asing terbagi atas beberapa tingkatan akses. Pada akses tingkat tertinggi adalah pasar uang antar bank PUAB yang terdiri dari perusahaan-perusahaan bank investasi besar. Pada akses tingkat di bawahnya, rentang selisih antara harga jual dan harga beli menjadi besar tergantung dari volume transaksi.

Apabila seorang trader [7] dapat menjamin terlaksananya transaksi valuta asing dalam jumlah besar maka mereka dapat meminta agar selisih nilai jual dan beli diperkecil yang disebut better spread selisih tipis antara harga jual dan beli. Level akses terhadap pasar valuta asing adalah sangat ditentukan oleh ukuran transaksi valuta yang dilakukan. Dan setelah bank-bank peringkat atas tersebut maka peringkat selanjutnya adalah bank-bank investasi kecil lalu perusahaan-perusahaan multi nasional besar yang membutuhkan lindung nilai atas risiko transaksi serta membayar para pegawainya di berbagai negara , hedge fund besar [8] , dan juga para pedagang eceran yang menjadi penentu pasar valuta asing.

Menurut Galati dan Melvin [9] , dana pensiun , perusahaan asuransi , reksadana dan investor institusi adalah merupakan pemain yang memiliki peran besar dalam pasar keuangan secara umum dan khususnya pasar valuta asing sejak dekade an. Pasar uang antar bank PUAB memenuhi kebutuhan mayoritas dari perputaran uang di dunia usaha serta kebutuhan dari transaksi para spekulan setiap harinya yang dapat mencapai nilai triliunan dollar.

Beberapa transaksi dilaksanakan untuk dan atas nama nasabahnya, tetapi sebagian besar adalah untuk kepentingan pemilik bank ataupun untuk kepentingan bank itu sendiri. Hingga saat ini, pialang valuta asing adalah merupakan pelaku perputaran valuta dalam jumlah yang besar, memfasilitasi perdagangan PUAB dan mempertemukan penjual dan pembeli untuk "upah" fee yang kecil.

Salah satu pemeran pasar valuta asing ini adalah adanya kebutuhan dari aktivitas perusahaan dalam melakukan pembayaran harga barang ataupun jasa dalam mata valuta asing.